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Fabrication process for in vitro engineering of human skin (A). Primary human dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes are serially inoculated onto a collagen-based biomaterial and cultured at the air-liquid interface for up to 21 days. H&E staining of engineered skin after 14 days in culture and normal human skin (C).  Immunostaining of engineered skin at day 14 showing basement membrane formation (D, laminin-5, red) and epidermal differentiation (E, involucrin, red).
 
H&E staining of normal human skin (A) and engineered human skin (D). Solid black line identifies the basement membrane.  Stained sections were analyzed with MetaMorph image analysis software to obtain outlines of the different tissue elements: the epidermis and dermis. 2D finite element models of the human (B) and engineered skin (E) were created and stress distribution within the skin layers was modeled at 10% strain assuming Mooney-Rivlin hyperelasticity. C) In normal human skin stress is distributed evenly between the epidermis and dermis with stress concentration at the rete ridges. F) In engineered skin, stress is significantly concentrated in the epidermis.  Collaboration with S. Ghadiali (OSU).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The biomaterials techniques used to create the dermal extracellular matrix analog can be altered to promote the formation of rete ridge-like structures. More complex molds for the collagen freeze drying process are proposed (A&B) in addition to post scaffold fabrication methods including femtosecond laser ablation (D&E).